Numer 1/2019

Od redaktora naukowego

Szanowni Państwo,
Z przyjemnością oddajemy w Państwa ręce kolejny numer „Studiów i Materiałów”, prezentujący teksty w dużej mierze skupione na analizach zjawisk ekonomicznych na świecie oraz różnych obszarów zarządzania.

Artykuł otwierający, autorstwa Svetlany Keil, dotyczy inteligentnej specjalizacji w regionach umiarkowanie innowacyjnych, co przestawiono na przykładzie Polski i Litwy. W tekście wykorzystano wyniki badań wstępnych prowadzonych metodą jakościową, na podstawie wywiadów i analizy istniejących dokumentów. Badano, w jaki sposób nowe wymogi dotyczące kształtowania polityki innowacyjnej wpływają na istniejące tradycje tworzenia polityki w tego typu regionach oraz w jaki sposób przyjęto strategie inteligentnej specjalizacji na potrzeby wymogów dla funduszy z Unii Europejskiej. Autorka analizuje procesy wdrażania i oceny strategii.

Jowita Grzelak podjęła się natomiast opracowania determinant mających wpływ na ryzyko adekwatności kapitałowej banków komercyjnych z Europy Środkowo- Wschodniej. Konkluzją jej wywodu jest wniosek, że długotrwała utrata wypłacalności banku może w konsekwencji doprowadzić do jego upadłości. W badaniu użyto współczynnika Tier 1, który reprezentuje ryzyko wypłacalności.

W artykule, autorstwa Sylwii Radomskiej, poruszono z kolei kwestię kredytów studenckich na przykładzie Stanów Zjednoczonych. Autorka podjęła się analizy opracowań ekonomicznych dotyczących optymalnego opodatkowania i jego skutków. Artykuł kończy się podsumowaniem wyników badań teoretycznych i symulacyjnych.

Analiza czynników warunkujących ratingi banków z krajów Europy Zachodniej jest przedmiotem zainteresowania Doroty Król. Autorka przeprowadziła analizę literatury i na tej podstawie sformułowała hipotezy badawcze. W analizach wykorzystała dane kwartalne za lata 2010–2017 z bazy danych Thomson Reuters i statystyk OECD zebranych dla banków komercyjnych w Europie Zachodniej.

Agnieszka Krzemińska w swoim artykule przeprowadziła analizę i ocenę wpływu władztwa podatkowego gmin na budżety tych jednostek w Polsce. Autorka dokonała przeglądu literatury oraz odpowiednich aktów prawnych. Na podstawie przeprowadzonej analizy wysnuła wniosek,
że władztwo podatkowe gmin skutkuje zmniejszeniem ich dochodów budżetowych.

Tendencjami koncepcji typologii i kierunkami rozwoju systemów informatycznych zajęli się zaś Patryk Krajewski i Witold Chmielarz. Autorzy przeprowadzili analizę literaturową w tym obszarze. W tekście zaprezentuowali podziały i relacje kolejnych generacji systemów, które nie odpowiadają już potrzebom obecnych użytkowników. Analiza wykazała, że istnieją pewne momenty przełomowe w rozwoju systemów informatycznych.

Agnieszka Kozłowska poddała natomiast analizie wpływ Benedetta Cotrugliego, autora pierwszego teoretycznego opisu zasad podwójnej księgowości, a także Luci Paciolego, który skodyfikował zasady prowadzenia ksiąg rachunkowych oraz Ambrogio Lerici, człowieka który przywiózł zasady podwójnego zapisu z Włoch do Polski. Tekst opiera się na danych historycznych.

Paweł Świerkuła dokonał prezentacji teoretycznych koncepcji związanych z wewnętrznymi czynnikami rozwoju przedsiębiorstw, przedsiębiorczości oraz kompetencji przedsiębiorczych. Tekst opiera się na przeglądzie dotychczasowych badań w tym obszarze.

Rafał Szlachta w swoim artykule skupił się na wpływie czynników kulturowych na organizację imprez sportowych. W tekście Autor podkreślił potrzebę dokonywania takich analiz z uwagi na wielokulturowość owych eventów. Autor wskazał pozytywne praktyki w organizacji imprez sportowych.

Serdecznie zapraszamy do lektury!

Redakcja

Issue content

Smart Specialisation in Moderately Innovative Regions – A Qualitative Study of Poland and Lithuania (15 pages)
Author: Svetlana Keil
Keywords: smart specialisation, entrepreneurial discovery process (EDP), innovation policy, innovation systems
PP. 5 - 19
DOI: 10.7172/1733-9758.2019.30.1
Smart specialisation (S3) strategies had to be prepared by the European Union (EU) member states in compliance with ex-ante conditionality to receive EU Structural and Investment Funds (ESIF). The approach of S3 has been novel and especially challenging for the regions regarded as moderate innovators1. This study is a part of a larger research project and it aims to explore how novel innovation policy-making requirements affect existing policy-making traditions in such regions and how S3 has been adopted in the context of the local institutional environment. Furthermore, the study seeks to explain the rationale behind the main challenges for the S3. The cases of Poland and Lithuania are analysed using a qualitative method, based on interviews and analysis of existing documents. Structuration theory and neo-institutional theory perspectives are applied to interpret the data. At the first sight, approaches and challenges in both countries seem alike; however, when zoomed closer, the differences emerge in terms of complexity of the processes, implementation, inteligentna specjalizacjaand evaluation of S3
Determinants of Central Eastern European Banks’ Adequacy Risk (11 pages)
Author: Jowita Grzelak
Keywords: commercial bank, CEE, Tier I, capital adequacy, ratio, equity, panel data
PP. 20 - 30
DOI: 10.7172/1733-9758.2019.30.2
Banks in their operations are exposed to many factors that may have a negative impact on their functioning. Fears of negative consequences of the risk that could lead to the bank’s bankruptcy were compounded after the collapse of Lehman Brothers in 2008. The Lehman Brothers example shows how important the issues of supervision, bank management and risk management are. The purpose of this article was to identify the main determinants that affect the capital adequacy risk of commercial banks from Central and Eastern Europe. This research seems to be significant due to the fact that a long-term loss of bank solvency may result in its bankruptcy. In this article, the solvency risk is represented by the capital Tier1 ratio. For the examined variables, which are suspected to have a statistically significant impact on\the dependent variable, the following were selected: the size of the bank (natural logarithm of the value of assets), the ratio of equity to total assets, the ratio of loan allowances to total loans, the ratio of loans to total assets, the ratio of loans to non-working assets, total return on equity, the ratio of liquid assets to total assets and the ratio of loans to deposits.
Optimal Policy for Investment in Human Capital in the Light of Optimal Tax Theory (9 pages)
Author: Sylwia Radomska
Keywords: optimal taxation with human capital, income-contingent repayment, education subsidies
PP. 34 - 42
DOI: 10.7172/1733-9758.2019.30.3
The increasing amount of student loan is becoming a pressing issue for the US economy, as it exceeds 1.4 trillion dollars (or 7.2% of GDP), thus requiring a policy change. This paper presents economic literature on optimal taxation with human capital, which provides foundations for evaluating the long-run effects of taxation and endogenous investment in skills. I review insights from the dynamic models. The literature in the field considers two instruments: turning repayments income-contingent and providing subsidies to education costs. I summarize the results from theoretical and simulation studies. Income-contingent repayment schemes can improve welfare, whereas the effects of education subsidies may be positive only under some assumptions.
Analysis of Factors Determining the Credit Rating of Banks from Western European Countries (13 pages)
Author: Dorota Król
Keywords: credit rating agency, credit rating, credit risk, financial indicator
PP. 43 - 55
DOI: 10.7172/1733-9758.2019.30.4
The aim of the article is to analyze the determinants affecting credit ratings of banks from Western European countries. On the basis of the literature review, two research hypotheses were put forward. The first of these assumes that the financial indicators related to capital adequacy, asset quality, management quality, profitability and liquidity have a statistically significant effect on the credit rating of the analyzed bank. The second hypothesis indicates that the factors determining the bank’s credit rating are the country’s macroeconomic indicators and the rating assigned to this country. The analysis used the quarterly data for the years 2010–2017 from the Thomson Reuters database and OECD statistics collected for commercial banks in Western Europe. Based on the prepared data, calculations were carried out using static panel models. The long-term ratings assigned to banks by the two largest rating agencies in the world, i.e. S&P Long-term Issuer Rating (Foreign) and Moody’s Long-term Issuer Rating (Foreign), were used as a dependent variable. Independent variables, on the other hand, include financial indicators and macroeconomic indices of the country where the bank is located and the credit rating of that country.
The importance of tax authority for the budgets of municipalities (11 pages)
Author: Agnieszka Krzemińska
Keywords: municipalities, local taxes and fees, tax authorities
PP. 56 - 66
DOI: 10.7172/1733-9758.2019.30.5
Municipalitiesin order to fulfill their tasks and achieve social and economic goals. need to have an adequate level of public revenue. Local taxes and fees are of significant importance in this context, because in their scope local authorities have a given tax authority scope. They can apply tax breaks and exemptions, set tax rates, or cancel tax arrears. The article assumes a research hypothesis that the scope of tax authority granted to municipalities affects the reduction of budget revenue of these units. The aim of the article is to analyze and assess the impact of tax authorities’ municipalities on the budget of these units in Poland. For this purpose, a critical analysis of the subject literature and the analysis of legal acts was made. The tax efficiency of local taxes and charges was also diagnosed and the financial consequences of lowering upper tax rates, granting reliefs and redundancies, redemptions, spreading into installments and postponing payment terms by municipalities in relation to total revenues and own revenues in 2008–2017 were presented. The analysis showed that the tax authorities applied by the municipalities resulted pozoin a decrease in budgets revenue of these units. The municipal authorities decided in particular to reduce the upper tax rates.
The concept of directions of development of information systems (13 pages)
Author: Patryk Krajewski, Witold Chmielarz
Keywords: systemy informatyczne zarządzania, rozwój systemów informatycznych, typologia systemów informatycznych
PP. 67 - 79
DOI: 10.7172/1733-9758.2019.30.6
The main purpose of this article is to present a new concept of typology and directions of development of management information systems, taking into account current trends. The analysis of literature sources and the authors ‚experience indicate that despite the extensive literature on the subject, the divisions and relations of subsequent generations of systems appearing in it do not correspond to the increasingly complex reality and users’ needs. The presented concept was created as a result of a brainstorming session at the Faculty of Management University of Warsaw and verified at conference on the 50th anniversary of computer science at the Warsaw School of Economics in 2018. In the first approach – the conclusion from the discussion was the division into three main development paths, in the second the assignment of modern, innovative technologies to previously identified directions development. The results of the typology indicate the existence of breakthrough moments – milestones of development, challenges facing the use of information systems in the economy, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of the latest technologies.
Benedetto Cotrugli – a precursor of science and didactics in accounting and his chosen successors. The double-entry bookkeeping system’s journey from the Italian land to Poland (10 pages)
Author: Agnieszka Kozłowska
Keywords: history of accounting, Benedetto Cotrugli, double entry rule, historical research
PP. 80 - 89
DOI: 10.7172/1733-9758.2019.30.7
The article focuses on historical aspects and the presentation of selected persons, who have had a key impact on reaching the principle of double-entry from Italy to Poland. It presents the history of the prevalence of the double-entry rule and thus Benedetto Cotrugli’s contribution to science and education in accounting. Cotrugli’s work was a compendium of merchant knowledge necessary to keep accounting books and the same time a basis for science and education in this field. It was Benedetto Cotrugli who made the first theoretical description of the rules of double accounting, exceeding by over 20 years the work of Luca Pacioli, who codified the principles of bookkeeping in his work Summa de arithmetica, geometria, proportioni et proportionalita, published in Venice in 1491. Due to the fact that the article also attempts to present the meaning of Cotrugli’s book (Book on the Art of Trade), already written in 1458, for the history of accountancy in Poland, it also refers to Ambrogio Lerici, as the first Italian who dealt with dissemination of the double-entry rules in Gdańsk.
Internal sources of company development typical for small and middle size food enterprises (11 pages)
Author: Paweł Świerkula
Keywords: company development, internal factors of company development, entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial competencies, small and middle size companies
PP. 90 - 100
DOI: 10.7172/1733-9758.2019.30.8
Development of each enterprise depends on external factors related to the company’s environment as well as internal ones inherent in the company. The article presents theoretical concepts of internal factors of enterprise development, entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial competences. Based on research, development factors of small and middle size enterprises operating in the food industry were reviewed showing specific factors for this industry.
The meaning of culture in the process of organising sports events (12 pages)
Author: Rafał Szlachta
Keywords: culture, cultural factors, organisational culture, sport,, sporting event
PP. 101 - 112
DOI: 10.7172/1733-9758.2019.30.9
This publication is dedicated towards exploring the issues related to an influence of cultural factors on organisation and management of sporting events. The majority of contemporary sport federations and organisations are multicultural entities. Such aspect of multiculturality poses challenges, as while the members of such organisations are inclined towards co-operation and they naturally engage into various interactions, misunderstandings and conflicts may arise if some issues are left unchecked. For the managing and organising cadre, the future development and evolution of sport disciplines constitutes a challenge on both local and international level. Moreover, c-level officials in the aforementioned (usually multicultural) organisations are most likely to be exposed to such topics as their role is to overcome organisational obstacles throughout the life cycle of any kind of a sporting event regardless of size and scale. The actions of sporting organisations should be built on openness, as such culture should empower and streamline necessary actions, while allowing for the organising cadre to open-up and increase the amount of interactions with their environment.