Numer 2/2018 cz.1

Od redaktora naukowego

Szanowni Państwo,

Z przyjemnością oddajemy w Państwa ręce kolejny numer pisma „Studia i Materiały”.

Numer otwiera tekst Moniki Jakubiak i Pawła Chrapownickiego dotyczący komercjalizacji wyników badań naukowych, w efekcie których w przedsiębiorstwie
wdrażane są nowe produkty innowacyjne. Celem badań przedstawionych w artykule była próba identyfikacji czynników wpływających na nawiązywanie współpracy
oraz prowadzenie wspólnych prac badawczo-rozwojowych przez naukowców i przedsiębiorców, ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem branży farmaceutycznej.

W kolejnym artykule zamieszczonym w tym numerze Krzysztof Cybulski dowodzi, że defraudacja zasobów organizacyjnych przez sprzedawców należy do jednej
ze słabiej rozpoznanych, a zarazem najbardziej dewastujących organizację praktyk spotykanych w praktyce zarządzania organizacjami sprzedaży. Defraudacja jest zjawiskiem słabo rozpoznanym, ale poważnie wpływającym na wyniki generowane przez organizacje.

Z kolei Marzena Hajduk-Stelmachowicz w swoim tekście skoncentrowała się na przedstawieniu charakterystyki modeli zarządzania energią (szczególnie eklektyczną)
stosowanych w dyrekcjach ochrony środowiska, w kontekście poprawy efektywności energetycznej. W pracy zaprezentowano wyniki analiz deklaracji środowiskowych
wszystkich regionalnych dyrekcji ochrony środowiska widniejących w rejestrze EMAS.

Tanya Kosowski natomiast w swoim artykule przedstawia aktualne praktyki zarządzania pracownikami dojrzałymi i czynniki dostępności w zakresie możliwości
zatrudniania pracowników dojrzałych w organizacjach. Opiera się na przeglądzie najnowszych artykułów naukowych opublikowanych w recenzowanych czasopismach.

Tekst Pauliny Kubery ma na celu wskazanie, jak dodatkowość behawioralna jest definiowana w odniesieniu do instrumentów polityki publicznej na rzecz badań, rozwoju i innowacji (BRI), gdzie ten termin został ukuty, jak można ją mierzyć, i co mówią wyniki badań empirycznych w tej dziedzinie.

Katarzyna Kubiszewska z kolei przedstawia narzędzie do szacowania stabilności sektora bankowego jako całości. Chociaż narzędzie to można wykorzystać do oszacowania poziomu stabilności dla wszystkich krajów, relacje między różnymi zmiennymi i współzależności wskaźników stosowanych w narzędziu będą się różnić w badanych krajach, co również poddane zostało przez autorkę analizie.

Temat właściwego zagospodarowania terenów łęgowych i konieczności prowadzenia tam racjonalnej polityki przestrzennej analizuje w swoim opracowaniu Krzysztof
Kud
. Systemowe rozwiązanie, wspierające pozyskiwanie z terenów zalewowych siana na cele energetyczne, przyniosłoby korzyści w postaci poprawy miksu energetycznego, bezpieczeństwa wodnego, lepszego wykorzystania procesu aluwialnego oraz uniknięcia strat powodziowych.

Z kolei Piotr Tomasz Makowski podejmuje próbę ukazania potrzeby stosowania inżynierii pojęciowej oraz jej kompetencji na terenie teorii organizacji i zarządzania
(OMT). Broni poglądu, że konsekwentne stosowanie założeń inżynierii pojęciowej na terenie OMT pozwala podnosić jej standardy pojęciowo-teoretyczne, co w dalszej
konsekwencji może pozytywnie wpływać na naukowe i praktyczne walory dyscypliny.

Agnieszka Momora i Jan Krupa koncentrują się natomiast na przedstawieniu wyników analiz nawyków i preferencji żywieniowych osób zatrudnionych w systemie
zmianowym. Na podstawie literatury przedstawiają korelację między dietą pracowników a ich wydajnością i efektywnością w pracy. Ponadto badają zależność pomiędzy zachowaniami żywieniowymi badanych a ich stanem zdrowia.

Kolejni autorzy – Bhairab Chandra Patra i Usha Lenka – dokonują przeglądu literatury dotyczącej intencji przedsiębiorczych kobiet i przygotowania rekomendacji
do dalszych kierunków badań działań, które warto byłoby podjąć. Celem tego badania jest zidentyfikowanie głównych obszarów, w których naukowcy prowadzą
badania dotyczące intencji przedsiębiorczych kobiet.

Lesław Pietrewicz przedstawia z kolei koncepcyjną analizę finansowania i zarządzania (governance) blockchainem z wykorzystaniem tokenów. Celem jego opracowania jest zbadanie cech tokenów w zakresie governance, co ma służyć lepszemu zrozumieniu konstrukcji tokenów i ich wykorzystaniu w blockchainach.

Artykuł Kariny Sachpazidu-Wójcickiej dotyczy związku pomiędzy pionowym i poziomym transferem technologii a innowacyjnością przedsiębiorstw.

Zofia Skrzypczak natomiast w swojej pracy przedstawia zjawisko starzenia się personelu medycznego na tle starzejącego się społeczeństwa Polski. Podkreśla, że
rosnący udział w strukturze profesjonalistów medycznych mających prawo wykonywania zawodu grup wiekowych: „55–64 lata” oraz „65 lat i więcej”, przy relatywnie
niewielkim i malejącym udziale ludzi młodych, grozi wystąpieniem braku tzw. zastępowalności pokoleniowej.

W ostatnim tekście w numerze Grażyna Wieczorkowska i Magdalena Sieradzka dokonały syntezy wiedzy dotyczącej przeciążenia/niedociążenia poznawczego pracowników, które ma wymierne konsekwencje dla efektów ich pracy.

Zapraszamy do lektury.

Redakcja pisma „Studia i Materiały”

Issue content

Determinants of science-business cooperation in pharmaceutical production – case study (8 pages)
Author: Monika Jakubiak, Paweł Chrapownicki
Keywords: science-business cooperation, commercialization, technological innovations, pharmaceutical sector, determinants of cooperation
PP. 7 - 14
DOI: 10.7172/1733-9758.2018.28.1
The subject of the article is commercialization of research which generates innovative products for the company involved. The aim of the research was to identify factors that influence the onset of cooperation and mutual research by scientists and entrepreneurs in the pharmaceutical sector. Empirical part of the research was based on case study method. The authors confront data collected during the desk research with the data obtained from studying a company that has been transforming from a pharmaceutical distributor into a production company in this sector. In order to develop innovative medical products, the company undertook cooperation with scientists who proposed solutions that are demanded in the market. Interviews with representatives of the company and scientists involved in cooperation were conducted. Additionally, the authors interviewed representatives of technology transfer office at Lublin University of Technology, who supported the cooperation with their consulting services, and made participating observations of the initial stages of cooperation. The analysis of the empirical data allowed presentation of success factors in initiating cooperation in implementing innovations for all the actors involved, i.e. companies, scientists and supporting institutions.
Multi-dimensional nature of the phenomenon of fraud in sales organizations. Undiscovered land of research opportunity (11 pages)
Author: Krzysztof Cybulski
Keywords: organizational resource fraud, financial resource fraud, fixed asset fraud, data fraud,, information fraud, customers fraud, personnel fraud, know-how fraud, reputation fraud, time fraud
PP. 15 - 25
DOI: 10.7172/1733-9758.2018.28.2
Ethics as well as moral values are a powerful force which can regulate the behavior of salespeople, both inside and outside of an organization. While reasonably specific and easy to understand, ethics do not exhaust the list of determining factors which determine a person’s propensity for fraud. There is a range of fraudulent activities which take place in companies which are not perceived as immoral or at least ethically doubtful. Authors of this text argue that fraud of organizational resources by salespeople is one of the most unrecognized and one of the most devastating phenomena in the modern sales force management practice. Fraud is a largely unrecognized phenomenon, and yet it deeply affects the results generated by companies, often significantly increasing the cost of doing business, as most sales executives indicate.
Energy management in regional directorates for environmental protection registered in the Eco-Management and Audit Scheme (EMAS) – selected aspects (11 pages)
Author: Marzena Hajduk-Stelmachowicz
Keywords: energy management, eco-management and audit scheme (EMAS), regional directorates of environmental protection, energy efficiency
PP. 26 - 36
DOI: 10.7172/1733-9758.2018.28.3
The article is an attempt to fill the cognitive gap regarding energy management in state administration organizations that operate the EMAS (eco-management and audit scheme). The paper presents result of environmental declarations (validated between July and September 2017) analyzes of all Regional Environmental Protection Directorates appearing in the EMAS register (as of 1 March 2018). The aim of the study is to characterize the energy management models used in all environmental protection directorates in the context of improving energy efficiency. Despite the similar nature of the tasks performed by each regional directorate for environmental protection, their approach to energy management varies. This diversity can be a valuable source of benchmarking. Offices generally do not set environmental indicators in the area of energy efficiency, because there is no technical possibility to monitor these aspects – the administration of these elements is carried out by other entities. The problem is that someone else administers and someone else pays bills (for example for energy use). This does not positively affect the improvement of energy efficiency, because the end-user does not feel the so-called “causative power” reflected in the consequences of the actions taken. The blurring of responsibility and the lack of mechanisms created to effectively convince system actions to improve energy efficiency become visible.
How to manage senior employees? Theories and current fields of research in an organizational context (15 pages)
Author: Tanja Kosowski
Keywords: senior employees, greying workforce, ageing workforce, age diversity management, inclusive workplaces
PP. 37 - 51
DOI: 10.7172/1733-9758.2018.28.4
Purpose: The greying of the workforce is a globally discussed phenomenon. It gained importance for organizations, policy-makers and scholars alike. This article offers an overview of applied theories and fields of research pertaining to the discussion on senior employees in the workforce. It presents current managerial practices for senior employees and assesses factors for the employability of senior employees in an organization. Design/methodology: The paper is based on a review of recent academic articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Keywords and elimination criteria are explained in the corresponding section. Findings: The article incorporates studies on senior employees from various disciplines in the field of organizational research. It portrays leading streams of thought on the employability of senior workers (e.g. depreciation/conservation model, standard economic theory and human capital theory). Moreover, it elaborates organizational factors which affect the employability of this cohort (e.g. motivators and demotivators for senior employees) Research limitations/implications: The article discusses the field of organizational research and related factors. Therefore, it is limited to studies concerning the field of organizational research. Economic, social or individual influences also constitute an important topic which should be investigated and discussed. Originality/value: The article presents the first review of theories and fields of research on senior employees in organizations and connects job and organizational factors which influence the employment situation of senior employees in an organization. The review encourages a dialogue regarding senior employees from various disciplines.
Moving beyond the ‘black box’ approach to public interventions promoting research, development and innovation. The concept of behavioural additionality (13 pages)
Author: Paulina Kubera
Keywords: behavioural additionality, evaluation, public intervention, RDI policy
PP. 52 - 64
DOI: 10.7172/1733-9758.2018.28.5
Traditional evaluations of public policy actions focus on the input and output side of the intervention (i.e. assume the so-called ‘black box’ approach), whereas the experience of public intervention also affects deeper changes of the recipient companies. Thus, a third dimension of additionality has been introduced to the evaluation theory and practice – the ‘behavioural additionality’. It takes account of the difference in behaviour of a target population owing to a public intervention. Although the idea to evaluate how public policy interventions affect behaviour of the actors of the innovation system appears to be a very compelling line of inquiry for scholars and practitioners alike, it gives rise to many practical difficulties. This paper investigates how behavioural additionality is defined and measured as well as what are the empirical findings on behavioural additionality in the literature on evaluation of public policy instruments in the field of research, development and innovation (RDI), where this term has been coined. To this end, a quantitative systematic literature review has been conducted. Thirty-eight scientific papers which explicitly acknowledge assessing behavioural additionality in reference to RDI policy instruments, and represent original research papers in which behavioural additionality is approached empirically, have been analysed revealing the current state in the field and directions for further research. Seven different conceptualisations of the term have been identified which reflect a multidimensional nature of the concept.
Interdependence of Ratios in Banking Stability Pentagon (15 pages)
Author: Katarzyna Kubiszewska
Keywords: transformation, banking sector, profitability, the Western Balkan region
PP. 65 - 79
DOI: 10.7172/1733-9758.2018.28.6
The banking sector is one of the key sectors in every economy, therefore, the issue of stability is one of the main interests not only of researchers but also policy-makers. The stability of the banking sector is especially important during a process of transformation. The aim of this article is to present a new tool for estimating the stability of the banking sector as a whole. Although the tool can be used to estimate the level of stability for all countries, the relationships between various variables and interdependence of the ratios used in the tool will differ between the countries surveyed, as tested in the article. The study is based on selected countries from two regions: the Western Balkans and the Baltic Sea states that are either in the process of transformation or have just completed that. Due to the choice of the banking sectors under study, it was possible to perform a comparative analysis between countries that have already undergone the transformation process and those that are currently in the transformation process. The survey is based on quarterly data for the period Q1, 2010–Q1, 2016. The data has been sourced from the International Monetary Fund.
Biomass of riparian meadows as an integrator of energy policy, spatial and water (10 pages)
Author: Krzysztof Kud
Keywords: renewable energy, hay biomass, floodplains, security, system support
PP. 80 - 89
DOI: 10.7172/1733-9758.2018.28.7
Among the various types of energy biomass, hay deserves particular attention because of the possibility of obtaining it from riverside areas that perform a number of different functions. In order to properly manage flood plains, it is necessary to conduct a rational spatial policy there and a support system for RES production ensuring water safety. The research was carried out in the valleys of San and Wisłok rivers. Farmers farming on floodplains did not include hay production for energy purposes. System solutions supporting the acquisition of floodplain hay for energy purposes, would benefit in terms of improved energy mix, water security, better use of the process and avoid the alluvial flood losses.
Conceptual Engineering and Organization and Management Theory (11 pages)
Author: Piotr Tomasz Makowski
Keywords: organization and management theory, conceptual engineering, methodology of inquiry
PP. 90 - 100
DOI: 10.7172/1733-9758.2018.28.8
The text is an attempt at showing the need of conceptual engineering (and its competences) on the terrain of Organization and Management Theory (OMT). The author defends the view that consistent use of conceptual engineering on the area of OMT allows to improve its conceptual-theoretical standards. This may positively affect its scientific and practical qualities. A critical analysis of selected examples of conceptualization in theory of organizational routines (important part of OMT) brings the following conclusion: the role of the use of conceptual engineering in OMT for its theoretical standards is similar to the role of compliance to methodology of inquiry for the overall empirical dimension of management sciences.
Eating behavior of shift workers and their health condition (10 pages)
Author: Agnieszka Momora, Jan Krupa
Keywords: shift work, eating behavior, diet, health
PP. 101 - 110
DOI: 10.7172/1733-9758.2018.28.9
Employees eating irregularly have a significantly reduced psychomotor performance, which affects their work efficiency. Shift workers encounter difficulties that prevent them from having a balanced diet. For this reason, they are particularly exposed to an increased risk of disorders, such as excessive body weight, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, sleep and digestion disorders. The aim of the study was to analyze the habits and dietary preferences of shift workers, and to examine the correlation between the eating behaviors of employees and their health condition. Based on a review of the literature the aim of this study was to establish a correlation between employees’ nutritional behaviours and their efficiency and effectiveness at work. The study included 79 shift workers, residents of the Podkarpackie Province. The author’s questionnaire, consisting of 34 questions, was used to conduct the study. The diet of shift workers differed from the rational principles of nutrition. Regularity of meals was dependent on the nature of the work. During daily shifts, employees were fed more regularly than during the night hours. A high percentage of respondents were employees who consumed meals in fast food bars. A high consumption of red meat and highly processed snacks was found. In own research, 32% of workers declared that they eat healthy. Frequent occurrence of food problems and cardiovascular diseases has been demonstrated. In order to increase the awareness of shift workers, it would be a good undertaking to introduce campaigns and educational programs.
Entrepreneurial Intentions of Women: A literature review (15 pages)
Author: Bhairab Chandra Patra, Usha Lenka
Keywords: entrepreneurial intentions, entrepreneurial decision-making process, citation analysis
PP. 111 - 125
DOI: 10.7172/1733-9758.2018.28.10
Entrepreneurial intentions research has been steadily growing and has recently gained more momentum in the twenty-first century. But the field of women entrepreneurial intentions is still in a very nascent stage and lots of research work needs to be done on the entrepreneurial intentions of women. This study attempts to review the literature on entrepreneurial intentions of women and provide necessary actions to be taken. The purpose of this study is to identify the main sub-areas on which women entrepreneurial intentions research is being conducted by the researchers. The Author uses citation analysis as a tool for identifying the fields attracting the maximum attention of researchers and content analysis to find out the gist of research in each sub-area. Cross referencing method was also used to find the papers in the field that proved most impactful and have made significant changes in the advancement of the field. Each paper was analyzed in terms of its objectives, findings, and future scope. The study presents an insight of the area from the review. It also highlights the major gaps identified from academic literature.
Token-based blockchain financing and governance: A transaction cost economics approach (14 pages)
Author: Lesław Pietrewicz
Keywords: blockchain, corporate finance, corporate governance, token, transaction cost economics
PP. 126 - 139
DOI: 10.7172/1733-9758.2018.28.11
The paper presents a conceptual analysis of token-based blockchain financing and governance. Its aim is to explore governance attributes of tokens – a new financial instrument issued by blockchain startups – with a view to understanding deployment of tokens by blockchains and their design. Transaction cost economics (TCE) has been chosen as a theoretical perspective for the analysis. The paper extends the scope of TCE theory by applying it to the blockchain context, and to the study of the role and nature of tokens in particular. It is argued that blockchains aggregate and coordinate the contributions of a distributed network of peers using a set of rules encoded in the blockchain protocol, thus eliminating the need for a hierarchy and day-to-day management, and promising to reduce typical coordination problems plaguing hierarchical organizations. Tokens, and particularly utility tokens, are found to differ fundamentally from equity and debt in their financial and governance attributes as they aim to combine the low cost of the rule-based governance with added adaptability characteristic of equity-based governance. The analysis offers insights for both strategy and entrepreneurship research and practice as it helps identify industries most vulnerable to disruption by blockchains and inform promising blockchain-based business model designs.
Vertical and horizontal technology transfer and firm innovativeness (14 pages)
Author: Karina Sachpazidu-Wójcicka
Keywords: innovativeness, vertical technology transfer, horizontal technology transfer
PP. 140 - 153
DOI: 10.7172/1733-9758.2018.28.12
The paper discusses the relationship between vertical and horizontal technology transfer and firms innovativeness. The main aim of the survey is to determine the relationship between vertical and horizontal technology transfer and innovativeness in surveyed enterprises, what has been investigated empirically. The specific objectives of the article relate to examining which specific dimensions of vertical and horizontal technology transfer influence firms innovativeness positively and which are the most important channels of vertical and horizontal technology transfer in firms innovativeness. The study is based on a survey on firms (n = 100) located in Poland. Data was collected during 100 interviews with managers of randomly selected companies. The article first establishes the research framework, then deduces the research hypotheses and finally describes the analysis tools, sample structure and statistical methods. The study uses a soft modelling method which allows for measuring and analysis of the relationships among unobserved variables (latent variables) – vertical technology transfer, horizontal technology transfer and innovativeness. The surveys have determined positive relationship between both vertical and horizontal technology transfer and innovativeness of the research sample. A strong direct effect on the innovativeness of the firms surveyed has different channels in the case of horizontal and vertical technology transfer, considering the importance of the entity (firm or scientific unit) the technology is transferred from. These findings suggest that measurement of both vertical and horizontal technology transfer and their channels should be developed further as they are important factors for firms innovativeness and competitiveness.
Aging of medical personnel – a challenge for the Polish healthcare system (13 pages)
Author: Zofia Skrzypczak
Keywords: human resources in health care, aging of medical personel, doctors, midwifes, nurses
PP. 154 - 166
DOI: 10.7172/1733-9758.2018.28.13
The aim of this paper is presentation of the medical personnel (doctors, nurses and midwife) aging phenomenon against the background of the aging Polish society. The growing share in the structure of medical professionals with the license in the age group: “55-64 years” and “65 years and more”, with a relatively small and decreasing participation of young people, threatens the occurrence of the lack of the so-called generational replacement. This is happening with the simultaneous occurrence of the phenomenon of an aging population that raises the increased demand for strictly medical and care services, the need to develop a long-term care system, rehabilitation, etc. Attention was paid to the current problems and those that may arise and deepen in the near future.
The optimum cognitive load of the employee (11 pages)
Author: Grażyna Wieczorkowska, Magdalena Sieradzka
Keywords: overload, extroversion, type of stimulation, level of arousal, multitasking
PP. 167 - 177
DOI: 10.7172/1733-9758.2018.28.14
The goal of the current article is an attempt to synthesize the knowledge on the consequences of cognitive overload/underload of the employees on their work outcomes. The course of the argument has been organized in the form of 4 theses. (1) Employee performance depends curvilinearly on the level of arousal (Yerkes i Dodson, 1908). This relationship is affected by the size of the available cognitive resources. The effect of emotions on the level of arousal depends on their type. (2) The magnitude of tonic arousal is primarily defined by the temperamental traits. The relationship between the arousal level and the temperament can be moderated by permanent personality traits, sociodemographic situation, as well as variable features, such as the level of fatigue (lack of sleep, cold…). (3). Employee’s phasic arousal depends not only on the objective stimuli and performed activity, but can also be moderated by the automatically operating perceptual filters, cognitive schemas, and a deliberate cognitive activity aimed at assigning meaning to the stimuli. (4). An employee can actively influence his/her arousal level by undertaking activities of a certain stimulative value. There are large differences regarding the type of preferred stimulation (intellectual, physical, social…).