Numer 2/2021

Od redaktora naukowego
Z przyjemnością oddajemy w Państwa ręce kolejny numer pisma naukowego „Studia i Materiały”.

Zapraszamy do lektury!


Issue content

Contemporary Managerial Competences. Empirical Studies in the Field of Education (13 pages)
Author: Agnieszka Postuła
Keywords: managerial competences, managerial values, manager, ethnographic research
PP. 4 - 16
DOI: 10.7172/1733-9758.2021.35.1
The aim of the article is to identify and introduce divisions/typologies of contemporary managerial competences. The main research problem is to understand the processes taking place in business universities and their impact on shaping the next generations of managers. The article is based on the results of qualitative research inspired by the ethnography of the organization. 5-year research in the area of managerial education was conducted. The article presents competences important for various groups of the managerial education process. Specific breakdowns of these competences have been proposed. Reflections on the shaping of these competences in future managers as well as methods and ways of education are presented. The basis of empirical inquiry is qualitative material that cannot be generalized to the entire population. It is also inadvisable to draw sharp distinctions between the proposed concepts and typologies, as they are inherently fluid and ambiguous. The research was conducted over a period of 5 years, which is a unique advantage in the era of digitization and the ubiquitous domination of capitalist values. The research group is extremely broad and includes all participants / actors in the management education process.
Leader or Leaderess? Consequences of Using Feminatives for the Perception of Leadership (15 pages)
Author: Anna O. Kuźmińska
Keywords: feminatives, implicit leadership theories, leadership, think manager—think male
PP. 17 - 31
DOI: 10.7172/1733-9758.2021.35.2
According to the Implicit Leadership Theory, leadership roles are assigned in the process of social construction and depend upon the level of congruence with the cognitive representation of a leader. Previous studies show that this cognitive representation is much more likely to involve a leader being a male rather than a female. The article presents the results of an experiment aimed at tentatively verifying whether the use of the feminine forms could increase the cognitive availability of the representation of a woman as a leader. In the experiment, 135 teams (N = 307 respondents) were randomly assigned to one of two experimental conditions: 1) generic instruction (without the use of feminatives, “Please, draw a leader”), 2) inclusive instruction (using feminatives, “Please, draw a leader/leaderess”). The results showed a significant interaction between the experimental manipulation and the proportion of women in the team. The use of feminine forms increased the percentage of females drawn as leaders only in teams with a high female-to-male ratio.
Knowledge Management Processes as a Challenge of Knowledge-Based Economy (14 pages)
Author: Filip Tużnik
Keywords: knowledge, knowledge management, knowledge transfer, business-science cooperation
PP. 32 - 45
DOI: 10.7172/1733-9758.2021.35.3
The article concerns the idea of knowledge and its innovative potential in the knowledge-based economy. The processes related to the knowledge transfer and knowledge management are often considered as factors determining the success in innovativeness. Knowledge management is also an important issue in inter-organizational cooperation since it considerably helps in the development of new technological solutions. The article provides research results on knowledge management conducted among enterprises and scientific units involved in cooperation under R&D projects co-financed by the Polish Federation of Engineering Associations and the National Centre for Research and Development.
Higher Education Efficiency and Quality (15 pages)
Author: Marcin Dwórznik, Krzysztof Opolski
Keywords: higher education, quality, efficiency, higher education institution, organizational effectiveness, didactics, research
PP. 46 - 60
DOI: 10.7172/1733-9758.2021.35.4
The efficiency and the quality of higher education institution was assessed with the use of process approach. The efficiency of the higher education institution was determined on the basis of a combination of typical financial measures, taking into account costs incurred in the process of didactics and research, and expenditures (measured by current liquidity, stock turnover, receivables and liabilities ratios) necessary for schools to maintain financial liquidity. As measures of quality, related to statutory tasks of the university, the factors determining graduates’ situation on the labour market as well as patents obtained as a result of research conducted by university were adopted. Applying measures of quality enabled the researcher to obtain a more comprehensive dimension of the universities’ efficiency, while proving the fact that financial measures alone may distort the actual picture of efficiency or even lead to erroneous conclusions. It can be hypothesized that in the case of a higher education institution that pursues its statutory goals of providing knowledge to the public by conducting didactics and research, the concept of efficiency should combine financial and qualitative dimensions. The results obtained in the study using the DEA method allow the researcher to determine the situation of the university for the period covered by the study.
Modern Auction Mechanisms for the Media Market (15 pages)
Author: Joanna Rachubik, Dorota Mirowska-Wierzbicka, Wojciech Zawadzki, Maciej Wilamowski, Krzysztof Fiok, Wojciech Maciejewski, Mateusz Szczurek
Keywords: advertising, auction, media market, media
PP. 61 - 75
DOI: 10.7172/1733-9758.2021.35.5
Online advertising is one of the most dynamically developing forms of advertising in the Polish market. This paper aims to review existing auction mechanisms for pricing and selling online advertisements. The analysis of the available solutions, including their advantages and disadvantages, such as usefulness in determining the advertisers’ willingness to pay, allows for the indication of practical recommendations for the use of specific auction mechanisms for the media market in Poland. The presented solutions can be considered an alternative to the traditional method of concluding purchase/selling transactions of advertising space.
The Markov Process as a Model of Migration Based on the Example of the Movement of Banknotes (17 pages)
Author: Arkadiusz Manikowski
Keywords: migration of people, migration of banknotes, Markov chain, gravity model
PP. 76 - 92
DOI: 10.7172/1733-9758.2021.35.6
This paper presents a way of using the Markov chain model for the analysis of migration based on the example of banknote migration between regions in Poland. We have presented the application of the methodology for estimating one-step transition probabilities for the Markov chain based on macro-data gathered during the project conducted in the National Bank of Poland (NBP) in the period of December 2015–2018. We have shown the usefulness of state-aggregated Markov chain not only as a model of banknote migration but as migration in general. The banknotes are considered here as goods, so their migration is strictly related to, inter alia, the movement of people (commuting to work, business trips, etc.).Thus, the gravity-like properties of cash migration pointed to the gravity model as one of the most pervasive empirical models in regional science. Transition probability of the Markov chain expressing the attractive force between regions allows for estimating the gravity model for the identification of relevant reasons of note and, consequently, people migration.
The Crime of Intellectual Forgery of Documents in the Form of Invoices (12 pages)
Author: Anna Wochowska-Petrykowska
Keywords: invoice, crime, fiscal offence, criminal law
PP. 93 - 104
DOI: 10.7172/1733-9758.2021.35.7
The article discusses the issue of intellectual forgery of documents in the form of invoices. It describes the current criminal regulation of the crime, its features and the threat of punishment. Doubts and dangers related to the introduction of the new regulation are indicated, and the directions of the legislation are marked. The above issues are extremely important from the point of view of running a business, the responsibility of entrepreneurs and people issuing VAT invoices.